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Public awareness of sickle cell disease in Bahrain

 
 

Date   :  23-09-2010

Visits  : 50  
 

Attachments : public awar.pdf

Descripiton : click to download full research

 
 
 

 

Public awareness of sickle cell disease in Bahrain

 

 for full reserch  please find the attachment enclosed

Shaikha Al Arrayed, Amani Al Hajeri

Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain

Correspondence: Shaikha Al Arrayed PhD Genetics Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, PO Box 12, Manama, Bahrain sarrayed@health.

gov.bh Submitted: October 2009 Accepted: December 2009

Ann Saudi Med 2010; 30(4): 284-288

PMID: ****** DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.65256

 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Previous studies that have assessed patient awareness of the management of sickle cell disease (SCD) indicated a lack of awareness of the disease and possibly a need for more public education. Therefore, we measured public awareness in Bahrain of SCD.

METHODS: The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. A questionnaire was distributed

The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. A questionnaire was distributed  among 2000 persons selected from among the general public. The participants had face-to-face interviews with either a health professional or a trained interviewer.

RESULTS: Most (93%) had heard of SCD and 89% knew that it can be diagnosed by a blood test, but 51% did not know the prevalence of SCD in Bahrain. Eighty-four percent recognized it as a hereditary disorder and 72% said that it can skip generations. Females showed better knowledge than males and married persons seems to know more about SCD than unmarried ones.

Most (93%) had heard of SCD and 89% knew that it can be diagnosed by a blood test, but 51% did not know the prevalence of SCD in Bahrain. Eighty-four percent recognized it as a hereditary disorder and 72% said that it can skip generations. Females showed better knowledge than males and married persons seems to know more about SCD than unmarried ones.

CONCLUSION: There is a good level of knowledge about SCD among the public, though some of the respondents  were confused about the difference between the carrier state of a disease and the disease itself. There is wide acceptance and appreciation of the SCD prevention campaigns being conducted in Bahrain, such as the premarital service and the student screening program..

. passed a law requiring all couples planning to get married to undergo free premarital counseling.3 In 1998 the student screening project began,4 and the newborn screening program for blood diseases was launched in 2007.5 All these programs were accompanied by educational campaigns that aimed at increasing public awareness about SCD as well as other common hereditary blood disorders. In 1998, Al Nasir et al conducted a study to assesspatient awareness of the management of SCD. Only 30% of the patients in that study were found to have a high degree of knowledge about the disease, and 59% of the subjects thought that there was not enough health education being conducted in the community.6 As far as we know, there has been no previous study in Bahrain to measure public awareness of SCD. We measured public awareness of SCD in Bahrain.

METHODS

 

The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. A questionnaire was developed to cover three of the commonest inherited blood diseasesin Bahrain: SCD, β-thalassemia, and G6PD deficiency. In this report, we present only the results for SCD. Some of the questions about SCD were adapted from the study by Boyd et al.7 The questionnaire was distributed among 2000 persons from the general public, including different occupations and ages (school teachers, secondary school students, and others). All participants were interviewed face-to-face either by a health professional or a trained interviewer.The first part of the questionnaire requested personal information such as age, sex, occupation, level of education, and social status. The data was coded and processed using SPSS v 15.0. Frequency tables were obtained and statistical analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney U test (nonparametric test algorithms) and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (nonparametric test algorithms).

 

we tested the relationship between the respondents' occupation and their level of awareness, the results were as expected: the higher the job status, the more knowledgeable the respondent. Professionals showed a significantly good level of knowledge about the nature of SCD, the different types of SCD, how it is diagnosed, the prevalence of the disease, the inheritance pattern, the symptoms, and the treatment; they were also more likely to know whether they themselves had the disease or not. University students answered 9 of 38 items (24%) correctly, which was significantly better that the performance of respondents with lower level of education (illiterate and school) or higher level of education (postgraduates) (P<.05). Twentyseven of 38 items (71%) were answered correctly by married individuals, which was significantly better than the performance of single individuals (P<.05).

Result

The response rate was 100%. There were 1106 females (55%) and 894 (45%) males in the study population. While 689 (34.5%) of the respondents were in the age group of 10-19 years, only 15 (0.8%) were older than the age of 30 years (Table 1). Of the respondents 583 were professionals, 406 (20.5%) were students, and 618 (31.3%) were unemployed. There were 966 (48.8%) school students, 900 (45.5%) university graduates, and 92 (4.6%) postgraduates, while 22 (1.1%) respondents were illiterate. One thousand fifty (53%) were single and 932 (47%) were married. The questionnaire was composed of multiple choice questions and open-ended questions (Tables 2-7). Those who had previously heard of SCD answered 34 items (94%) correctly (P<.05). When we tested the relationship between the level of knowledge and gender, the responses were significantly different for 20 questions (P<.05). In general, females showed better knowledge of SCD, especially the nature of the disease, the mode of inheritance, its diagnosis, whether they personally had it or not, the difference between SCD and sickle cell trait, and the common symptoms and management. Respondents who were 60 years and older gave more correct answers (P<.05). They answered 17 of the 38 items (45%) correctly, which was significantly better than the other age categories (P<.05). The age group of 30-39 years was the next best, answering 8 questions (21%) correctly. According to the number of correct responses the order was as follows: 60 years and older > 30-39 years > 40-49 years > 10-29 years and 50-59 years. Professionals gave the most correct answers. When   we tested the relationship between the respondents' occupation and their level of awareness, the results were as expected: the higher the job status, the more knowledgeable the respondent. Professionals showed a significantly good level of knowledge about the nature of SCD, the different types of SCD, how it is diagnosed, the prevalence of the disease, the inheritance pattern, the symptoms, and the treatment; they were also more likely to know whether they themselves had the disease or not. University students answered 9 of 38 items (24%) correctly, which was significantly better that the performance of respondents with lower level of education (illiterate and school) or higher level of education (postgraduates) (P<.05). Twentyseven of 38 items (71%) were answered correctly by married individuals, which was significantly better than the performance of single individuals (P<.05).

 

 
     
 

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